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FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

What is Concrete Cloth?

Frequently Asked Questions

Product Information

About Concrete Cloth™

What is Concrete Cloth?
Concrete Cloth (Concrete Cloth™), is a flexible concrete impregnated fabric, that hardens on hydration to form a thin, durable, water and fire proof concrete layer.
What applications is Concrete Cloth™ currently used for?
Concrete Cloth™ has a number of applications in the civil construction and military sectors including ditch lining, slope stabilization, pipeline protection, roofing, foundation blinding, asbestos containment, water tanks, flood defenses, shotcrete replacement, tunnel lining, building cladding, sandbag reinforcement, gabion reinforcement, expedient resurfacing and dust suppression.
How is Concrete Cloth manufactured?
Concrete Cloth™ is manufactured by Milliken in its LaGrange, GA, production plant using specialized machinery designed by Milliken & Concrete Canvas Ltd., to impregnate a custom cement blend with various admixtures into a 3D synthetic fiber matrix, with a PVC coating on one surface.
Does Concrete Cloth™ provide fire protection?
Concrete Cloth™ has achieved Euroclass classification B-s1, d0 which is the highest achievable level for combustible materials. It has not yet been certified in North America.

Storage

How should Concrete Cloth™ be stored prior to use?
Concrete Cloth™ should be stored in dry conditions, away from direct sunlight and within the manufacturers sealed packaging.
What is the shelf life of properly stored Concrete Cloth™?
When stored in the manufacturers packaging, Concrete Cloth™ can be kept for up to 24 months without significant degradation in performance.

Product Specifications

Which thickness of Concrete Cloth™ should I specify?
It depends on the application. Contact us for assistance for your specific application.
Are different colors of Concrete Cloth™ available?
Concrete Cloth is supplied in its natural color (mottled grey) as standard. There are a number of options for coloring Concrete Cloth™ including adding pigment to the cement blend, dying the base fabric fibers or applying colored surface treatments. The fiber surface of Concrete Cloth™ can easily be colored by painting with a good quality exterior masonry paint.
Are different widths of Concrete Cloth™ available?
Concrete Cloth™ is supplied in standard widths of 1.0m (3.28ft.) and 1.1m (3.6ft.) based on specific product.
In what sizes is Concrete Cloth™ available?
Concrete Cloth™5 bulks rolls are 200sqm (2153 Sq.ft.), Concrete Cloth™ CC8 are 125sqm (1345sq.ft.) and Concrete Cloth™ CC13 are 80sqm (861sq.ft.). Concrete Cloth™ CC5 batched rolls are 10sqm (107sq.ft.) and Concrete Cloth™ CC8 are 5sqm (54sq.ft.). Due to it’s relative weight, Concrete Cloth™ CC13 is not available in batched rolls as standard.
What are the weights of the different thicknesses of Concrete Cloth™?
Concrete Cloth has nominal weights of 7kg/sqm (1.43 lb. / sq.ft.), 12kg/sqm (2.46 lb. / sq.ft.) and 19kg/sqm (3.89 lb. / sq.ft.) for Concrete Cloth™ CC5, Concrete Cloth™ CC8 and Concrete Cloth™ CC13 respectively.
In what formats is Concrete Cloth™ available?
Concrete Cloth™ can be supplied as either palletized bulk rolls or man portable batched rolls.

Installed Product Properties

Will Concrete Cloth™ degrade in UV?
No.
What is the lifespan of properly installed Concrete Cloth™?
Concrete Cloth™ has a design life of 25 years if properly installed, subject to its application.
Does Concrete Cloth™ require any post-installation maintenance?
No.
How should Concrete Cloth™ be disposed of or demolished?
Concrete Cloth™ can be demolished using standard construction demolition equipment and disposed of in the same manner as conventional concrete installations.
Which contractors have previously installed Concrete Cloth in construction projects?
Contractors include Costain Group, Balfour Beatty, Morgan Sindall, Enterprisemouchel, Morrison Construction, Skanska, AMCO, Murphy Group, Dyer & Butler, J Breheny Contractors Ltd and Raymond Brown Ltd.
Which customers have specified Concrete Cloth for construction projects?
Customers have included UK MOD, Network Rail, Landmarc, Environment Agency, UK Coal, Bear Scotland, Rhondda Cynon Taff County Council, Caerphilly County Borough Council, Neath Port Talbot County Council, and Blaenau Gwent County Borough Council.

Installation & Use

General Installation

What is the maximum inclination of ditch profile that Concrete Cloth™ can be installed onto?
Concrete Cloth™ can be installed onto vertical surfaces.
Should Concrete Cloth™ be laid fiber or PVC surface facing upwards?
For the majority of applications, Concrete Cloth™ should be installed with the fiber surface exposed. The fiber reinforced concrete layer will protect the PVC backing from weathering and UV damage.
Can I cut Concrete Cloth™?
Prior to hydrating, unset Concrete Cloth™ can be cut using basic hand tools. It is recommended to use snap off disposable blades or handheld self-sharpening powered disc cutters. After Concrete Cloth™ has set, it can be cut using angle grinders, jigsaws with ceramic blades or good quality tile cutters.
Where can I buy ancillary Concrete Cloth™ installation products?
Building vendors can supply a full range of ancillary products for installation including ground pegs, water weights, jointing grout, render and sealant.
What methods are there of joining layers of Concrete Cloth™ together?
The 3 most common methods are overlap joint, adhesive sealant joint and concrete grout joint. There are a number of other mechanical and non-mechanical methods such as pegging, hog-ringing, steel wiring, thermal welding, and general fixings such as stapling, nailing or screwing.
At what intervals should Concrete Cloth™ be pegged down?
This is dependent on the application and the quality and inclination of the substrate, but as a guide we recommend pegging at 2m (6ft.) intervals and at joints.

Installation in extreme weather

Is it possible to lay Concrete Cloth™ in wet conditions?
Yes. Once wet, Concrete Cloth™ has a working time of approx. 2 hours.
Is it possible to lay Concrete Cloth™ in very cold conditions?
Yes. Warm water should be used for hydration and plastic sheeting should be applied over the hydrated cloth during setting.
Are there any special precautions to take when laying Concrete Cloth™ in very hot conditions?
Yes. It is advised to install Concrete Cloth™ at dusk to avoid evaporation of the hydration water in warm environments. In very hot conditions, it is advised to re-wet the material at 2 hour intervals until fully saturated.

Hydration

What water should be used to hydrate Concrete Cloth™?
Concrete Cloth™ can be hydrated using saline or non-saline water. The water does not need to be potable.
How much water should be used for hydration?
The minimum ratio of water to Concrete Cloth™ is 1:2 by weight. Concrete Cloth™ cannot be over hydrated so an excess of water is always recommended.
Where does the water come from for hydration? Do you need to bring in a water truck?
Water may be pumped from available water source in the area of the installation, trucked in via a water truch, and in some cases, hydrated by rain water. Most contractors choose to bring in water via a water truck.
Is it possible to accelerate or retard the setting time for Concrete Cloth™?
Yes. In sufficient order volumes, Concrete Canvas Ltd. can accelerate or retard the setting times of Concrete Cloth™ to accommodate different environmental conditions and applications.
Is it possible to over-hydrate Concrete Cloth™?
No.
What happens if Concrete Cloth™ is under hydrated?
The Concrete Cloth™ will not reach its full strength and the setting time may be retarded.
Will Concrete Cloth™ set underwater?
Yes. It will hydrate fully from immersion.

Health and Safety

What Health and Safety precautions should I take when handling Concrete Cloth?
General PPE precautions should be taken; face masks, protective clothing and gloves should be worn when handling Concrete Cloth™. Concrete Cloth™ does not contain measurable amounts of soluble Chromium (VI) and is not classified as an irritant.

Environmental

How does Concrete Cloth™ compare environmentally with conventional poured concrete?
Concrete Cloth™ provides material savings of up to 95% and reduces the need for cement mixing equipment, which can reduces the environmental impact of construction works.
Has Concrete Cloth™ been granted EA (Environment Agency) approval?
Yes. Concrete Cloth™ was approved for use by the UK Environment Agency (EA) Biodiversity team in 2010 for the Church Village Bypass Ditch Lining Project. Several projects have since been granted approval on a case-by-case basis. The same requests have not yet been made in North America.
How does Concrete Cloth™ washout affect the running water during installation?
Concrete Cloth™ has a low wash out rate compared to other cements and a limited alkaline reserve. Unlike most concretes, it is not classified as an irritant and is less damaging to the environment.
How will Concrete Cloth™ look with age?
In some climates untreated Concrete Cloth™ will naturally ‘green’ over time as the textured top surface allows moss growth, while the fibre-reinforced concrete layer will prevent root-growing vegetation, which in ditching applications could otherwise restrict water flow and increase maintenance costs.

Ordering Concrete Cloth™

Are samples of Concrete Cloth™ available?
Yes. Contact us for information and sample requests.
What is the price of Concrete Cloth™?
Contact us for a quote specific to your requirements, volume and delivery location.
Can I order different lengths and widths of material other than the standard bulk or batched lengths?
Different lengths and widths of material are available but may be subject to minimum volumes and batch charges. Contact us for information.
Is Concrete Cloth™ available outside of North America?
Yes. Milliken is the distributor for North America. Visit concretecanvas.co.uk for information on distributors for other locations.
 
 

 

 

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